Distinguish among popular, rejected, controversial, and neglected children. What are the characteristics of each type of child (popular and the three forms of unpopular)? How can an unpopular child become popular?
Popular children have well developed social skills, showing a high degree of social competence. Studies also indicate that popular children have a higher academic achievement, and are perceived as being more physically attractive, than unpopular children.
Unlike popular children, unpopular children lack the social skills required to be accepted by their peers. Unpopular children fall into three categories: rejected, controversial and neglected. Rejected children show inappropriate social behaviour such as aggression, over-activity, inattention and immaturity. Rejected children are also likely to have low academic achievement in school. Rejected children fall under two categories: 1) socially withdrawn children, and 2) aggressive disruptive children.
The neglected child shows low levels of both positive and negative behaviour
The controversial child whilst being bright, sociable and showing leadership skills actually behaves more aggressively than antisocial rejected children.
Because lack of social competence is seen as a major contributing factor in peer rejection, programmes that teach children the necessary social skills have been shown to improve their peer status.
Compared to preschoolers, how healthy are school-age children? Differentiate between acute and chronic illness during the school years, and indicate any long-term consequences that might be associated with them.
Children in middle childhood become more mobile and independent that in their preschool years. They are therefore, much more vulnerable to accidental injury or death. Our text notes that traffic accidents are the leading cause of death and injury in Western children. Children are also more susceptible to acute illnesses in middle childhood as they are exposed to more infections at school than in earlier years, but their immune system is not yet fully developed.
Acute illnesses are common childhood diseases such as influenza. They have a definite onset and conclusion. Most acute illnesses develop from viruses. In countries where vaccines have not eradicated or controlled infectious diseases, such as measles, diphtheria and poliomyelitis still lead to serious illness and death.
Chronic diseases do not have a bacterial or viral cause and include diabetes, asthma and childhood cancer such as leukemia. Asthma is thought to be caused by triggers such as atmospheric pollutants and cigarette smoke.
The long term effects of chronic illnesses can be prolonged absence from school, and disruptions to family life. These absences and disruptions can lead to social-emotional and academic problems. Chronic illness may also place significant stress on the caregivers and other family members. Some chronic illnesses can also be life threatening.
What are the main distinguishing features of self-concept during middle childhood? How is the self-concept different from the identity that develops in adolescence?
Children begin to develop a sense of self in middle childhood characterised by:
As children head towards adolescence their self concept becomes less absolute and more conditional. In adolescence, due to cognitive advances, children are more adept at integrating and reconciling these differentiated views of themselves.