The Library Mouse

Child Development

SOCIAL COMPETENCE

A helpful PowerPoint presentation on social competence. 

It notes that parents contribute to the development of their children’s social competence through their attachment relationship and through teaching emotional competence.  The quality of parent-child attachement predicts social competence later in a child’s life.  A key method for parents to improve social competency is to initiate peer interactions

Peers contribute to the development of a child’s social competence through modelling, pretend play and friendship. Modelling can lead to the development of altruism and empathy.  Pretend play allows children to practice out-of-play negotiation and the enactment of pretend episodes. Friendships provide a context for acquiring a variety of competencies.  They also provides resources for emotional support which enables exploration of the child’s environment.  Friends can also be precursors to other relationships for the child.

http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/552-04/slide%20sets/samantha_katz/samantha_soc_competence_final.ppt

ifuckinglovebiology:

A three day-old human embryo on the tip of a pin.

how tiny is that!

ifuckinglovebiology:

A three day-old human embryo on the tip of a pin.

how tiny is that!

(Source: biologylair, via ohyeahdevelopmentalbiology)

horseenchiladashoho:

Distinguish among popular, rejected, controversial, and neglected children. What are the characteristics of each type of child (popular and the three forms of unpopular)? How can an unpopular child become popular? 

Popular children have well developed social skills, showing a high degree of social competence.  Studies also indicate that popular children have a higher academic achievement, and are perceived as being more physically attractive, than unpopular children.  

Unlike popular children, unpopular children lack the social skills required to be accepted by their peers.  Unpopular children fall into three categories: rejected, controversial and neglected.  Rejected children show inappropriate social behaviour such as aggression, over-activity, inattention and immaturity.  Rejected children are also likely to have low academic achievement in school.  Rejected children fall under two categories: 1) socially withdrawn children, and 2) aggressive disruptive children.

The neglected child shows low levels of both positive and negative behaviour

The controversial child whilst being bright, sociable and showing leadership skills actually behaves more aggressively than antisocial rejected children.

Because lack of social competence is seen as a major contributing factor in peer rejection, programmes that teach children the necessary social skills have been shown to improve their peer status.


 

How to develop your child’s self-esteem

Give your child a:

  • A sense of security
  • A sense of belonging.
  • A sense of personal competence and pride.
  • A sense of trust
  • A sense of responsibility
  • A sense of contribution
  • A sense of self-discipline and self-control
  • A sense of encouragement, support and reward
  • A sense of accepting mistakes and failure
  • A sense of family self-esteem

http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/pages/Helping-Your-Child-Develop-A-Healthy-Sense-of-Self-Esteem.aspx

horseenchiladashoho:

Compared to preschoolers, how healthy are school-age children? Differentiate between acute and chronic illness during the school years, and indicate any long-term consequences that might be associated with them. 

Children in middle childhood become more mobile and independent that in their preschool years.  They are therefore, much more vulnerable to accidental injury or death.  Our text notes that traffic accidents are the leading cause of death and injury in Western children.   Children are also more susceptible to  acute illnesses in middle childhood as they are exposed to more infections at school than in earlier years, but their immune system is not yet fully developed.

Acute illnesses are common childhood diseases such as influenza.  They have a definite onset and conclusion.  Most acute illnesses develop from viruses.  In countries where vaccines have not eradicated or controlled infectious diseases, such as measles, diphtheria and poliomyelitis still lead to serious illness and death.

Chronic diseases do not have a bacterial or viral cause and include diabetes, asthma and childhood cancer such as leukemia.  Asthma is thought to be caused by triggers such as atmospheric pollutants and cigarette smoke.

The long term effects of chronic illnesses can be prolonged absence from school, and disruptions to family life.  These absences and disruptions can lead to social-emotional and academic problems.  Chronic illness may also place significant stress on the caregivers and other family members.  Some chronic illnesses can also be life threatening. 

horseenchiladashoho:

What are the main distinguishing features of self-concept during middle childhood? How is the self-concept different from the identity that develops in adolescence?


Children begin to develop a sense of self in middle childhood characterised by:

  • self constancy - a belief that one’s identity remains permanently fixed. I.e. social categories such as gender become consolidated.
  • the awareness of the relative permanence of psychological traits.  Self concept becomes more complex and multifaceted.  Children can deal with competing or conflicting elements of their self concept
  • sense of self reflects social description and social comparison.  So in middle childhood a child will describe himself relative to others. 
  • the ability to distinguish their thoughts and feelings from those of other people.

As children head towards adolescence their self concept becomes less absolute and more conditional.  In adolescence, due to cognitive advances, children are more adept at integrating and reconciling these differentiated views of themselves.

“Because it has such a profound impact on cognitive development, one of the most important experiences of middle childhood is attending school.”

—   Hoffnung, M., Hoffnung, R.J., Seifert, K.L., Smith, R.S., & Hine, A. (2010).  Childhood: First Australasian Edition.  Australia:  Wiley & Sons.
mummajess18:

This is interesting! It shows at what age a child should be producing a certain sound in the English language. 

By middle childhood children’s speech patterns Begin to sound more like adults.  There phonology is more precise, they have an expanded lexicon of about 40,000 words, they also showed improved syntax and pragmatics.  Metalinguistic awareness also develops in middle childhood.  This is when children begin to think about their own language production.  Can understand what words are and explain their meanings.

mummajess18:

This is interesting! It shows at what age a child should be producing a certain sound in the English language. 


By middle childhood children’s speech patterns Begin to sound more like adults.  There phonology is more precise, they have an expanded lexicon of about 40,000 words, they also showed improved syntax and pragmatics.  Metalinguistic awareness also develops in middle childhood.  This is when children begin to think about their own language production.  Can understand what words are and explain their meanings.

(via bundles-of-joy)

Scouts NZ  “Lets mobilize” - Offers a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities like camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking and sports.
http://www.scouts.org.nz/
GirlGuiding New Zealand - “be prepared for new adventure…”
GirlGuiding NZ aims to help girls develop skills, knowledge, values and a sense of adventure through an experiential learning ‘hands on’ programme that’s designed to be relevant to the interests of today’s girls. Girls are encouraged to be themselves, discover their potential, develop an awareness of others whilst having their ambition nurtured.

This is done through a wide range of activities - challenging outdoor programmes, international travel opportunities, community involvement projects, chances to learn new skills and develop existing skills, leadership training, opportunities to have their say.
http://www.girlguidingnz.org.nz/